What is gender-based analysis, anyway? How the policy tool is changing government

What is gender-based analysis, anyway? How the policy tool is changing government

Gender-based analysis is not new, but is getting more attention since the Liberals brought it into its budget

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police noticed that among rank-and-file members showing an interest in promotions, fewer women than men were putting their hands up.

A gender-based analysis of the RCMP process for selecting officers found a problem: the Mounties took applications for promotions in September. That coincides with the start of the school year, making it harder for those with school-aged children to complete it.

Rather than simply expecting mothers to get better at juggling, the RCMP made a change.

“The application process was adjusted to allow year-round submissions,” RCMP Cpl. Caroline Duval wrote in an email. “In the period following this change, we have seen a 12 per cent increase in the number of women applicants to the process.”

They took a closer look through something called gender-based analysis, which involves examining how a policy or process could affect men and women in different ways, while taking other factors such as age, race, ability, sexual orientation and income into account.

If the analysis, ideally done at the outset, reveals one gender, or another group, would experience disproportionately negative impacts, then plans can be reshaped to avoid that outcome, or at least mitigate those effects.

Gender-based analysis is not new, but it has been receiving more attention since the Liberal government brought it into its budget-making process and has been pushing it across all departments and agencies.

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau told each of his cabinet ministers in their new mandate letters released last week that he expects them to apply Gender-based Analysis Plus (GBA+), which is the name of the particular process used by Ottawa, to the decisions they make.

The Liberals have been criticized for their heavy focus on gender-based analysis, which has been wrapped up in the branding of Trudeau as a feminist prime minister and seen as a way to appeal to female voters.

The fact that Trudeau named an equal number of men and women to cabinet in 2015 was a political decision, but it was also listed in the 2019 federal budget document as one of the key milestones for gender-based analysis in Canada.

ALSO READ: B.C. women are financially stretched, alarmingly stressed: survey

Still, concrete examples of how gender-based analysis has been put to use in Canada and around the world show it has the proven ability, and lots of untapped potential, to make a real difference in the lives of girls and women — as well as boys and men.

“It’s been used as a wedge issue, I think that’s totally true, but it remains an important tool,” said Katherine Scott, a senior economist with the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. “And it’s evolving.”

Women and Gender Equality Canada, the department formerly known as Status of Women Canada, has provided online training in gender-based analysis to more than 150,000 federal public servants, MPs, senators and parliamentary staff as of Dec. 8.

That online training module encourages analysts, or anyone dreaming up a policy proposal, to challenge their own assumptions, including implicit biases, as well as those in the previous research and data they rely on to further develop their plans.

It notes, for example, that women have been largely left out of research into heart disease, as well as concussions, which can affect everything from recognizing symptoms to treatment. Men, meanwhile, have been left out of research into osteoporosis, despite the fact that nearly one-third of hip fractures related to the bone disease occur in male patients.

Canada committed to using gender-based analysis years ago, as part of ratifying the 1995 UN Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, but the results were mixed. The 2015 fall report from the federal auditor general concluded departments and agencies were using gender-based analysis in an incomplete or inconsistent way, if at all.

That is changing, now that every department and agency has to include gender-based analysis in every budget proposal, Treasury Board submission and memorandum to cabinet. The Liberals also passed legislation to enshrine gender-based analysis, which also involves considering diversity beyond sex and gender, in both budget-making and environmental impact assessments for new natural resource projects.

More training and better data have also improved the quality of analysis.

There have been interesting results.

  • The Canadian Coast Guard recently took a look at the sightlines on its search-and-rescue lifeboats and discovered that the height of the dashboard on the bridge made it harder for shorter people see over the edge. It is taking that into account as it designs new vessels.
  • Employment and Social Development Canada says its GBA+ results on poverty among Indigenous Peoples found that those living in remote and northern communities face different barriers when it comes to accessing benefits from the federal government. The analysis also found in-person outreach made a difference. The department has since expanded outreach programs, including by helping more people fill out the forms.
  • The Canada Border Services Agency incorporated gender-based analysis into the design of the primary inspection kiosks at airports. It found that facial-recognition software had the potential to negatively impact some groups, including through increased scrutiny and delays. To avoid this problem, the kiosks redirect anyone whose facial scan does not meet a certain threshold for a match to go through a visual inspection.

Joanna Smith, The Canadian Press

Like us on Facebook and follow us on Twitter.

Just Posted

Processed sewage is still being deposited at the Hartland landfill rather than sent as biosolids to a Richmond cement plant. (Black Press Media file photo)
Biosolids at Hartland still being placed on landfill in Saanich

Richmond cement plant up and running, but CRD end product not suitable for purpose

An SUV sits where it crashed through the front window of the 2:18 Run store in Fairfield Plaza, after the driver appeared to lose control on Monday afternoon. (Photo by Phil Nicholls)
Driver crashes through front window of Victoria running store in Fairfield

Phil Nicholls of 2:18 Run said crash sounded like an earthquake at first

Seismic upgrading and expansion work at Victoria High School is about a year behind due to pandemic-related factors, the Greater Victoria School District announced. (Photo by Cole Descoteau)
Victoria High School seismic work, expansion a year behind schedule

Greater Victoria School District now targeting September 2023 for reopening of historic school

The BC Ferries website went down for a short while Monday morning following a provincial announcement that recreational travel between health authorities can resume Tuesday. (Black Press Media file photo)
BC Ferries’ website crashes following provincial reopening announcement

Recreational travel between health regions to resume as of Tuesday

Elk Lake Drive area resident Michael Blayney protests a proposed multi-building development for his Royal Oak neighbourhood, outside Saanich municipal hall on Monday (June 14). (Photo by Megan Atkins-Baker/News Staff)
Demonstrators protest 11-storey development on Elk Lake Drive in Saanich

Saanich locals gather at municipal hall to protest development, public hearing goes Tuesday

Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau participates in a plenary session at the G7 Summit in Carbis Bay, England on Friday June 11, 2021. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Adrian Wyld
Canada donating 13M surplus COVID-19 vaccine doses to poor countries

Trudeau says the government will pay for 87 million shots to be distributed to poor countries

Montreal Canadiens goaltender Carey Price (31) is scored on by Vegas Golden Knights defenseman Alec Martinez, not pictured, during the second period in Game 1 of an NHL hockey Stanley Cup semifinal playoff series Monday, June 14, 2021, in Las Vegas. (AP Photo/John Locher)
Habs fall 4-1 to Vegas Golden Knights in Game 1 of NHL semifinal series

Match was Montreal’s first game outside of Canada in 2021

Kelowna-Lake Country MLA Norm Letnick, assistant deputy speaker at the B.C. legislature, presides over committee discussions. The legislature is completing its delayed spring session this week, with most MLAs participating by video conference. (Hansard TV)
B.C.’s daily COVID-19 infections dip below 100 over weekend

Only 68 new cases recorded Monday, four additional deaths

Neighbours fight a small late-night bush fire with garden hoses and shovels in Cinnabar Valley on June 5. They couldn’t get help from local fire services because the fire was located in an area under B.C. Wildfire Services jurisdiction. (Photo courtesy Muriel Wells)
Neighbours on edge of Nanaimo city limits left to put out bush fire themselves

Cinnabar Valley residents tackle fire with hoses and buckets for two and a half hours

Darren Campbell’s truck (pictured) was stolen when he stopped to check on a car in a ditch on Cowichan Bay Road on Monday morning. (Facebook photo)
Vancouver Island Good Samaritan’s truck stolen in nasty trick

‘Try to be a Good Samaritan and my $20,000 truck gets stolen right under my nose’

The Kamloops Indian Residential School is photographed using a drone in Kamloops, B.C., Monday, June, 14, 2021. The remains of 215 children were discovered buried near the former school earlier this month. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Jonathan Hayward
Communities grapple with what to do with former residential and day schools

Some tear them down as a tool to help healing, others repurpose them as tools for moving forward

Creative handmade signs abound at the June 13 Tofino rally for old growth trees. (Nora O’Malley photo)
VIDEO: Tofino stands in solidarity for Fairy Creek Blockades

Over 150 supporters attend rally hosted by Friends of Clayoquot Sound

FILE – Provincial health officer Dr. Bonnie Henry talks about B.C.’s plan to restart the province during a press conference at Legislature in Victoria, Tuesday, May 25, 2021. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Chad Hipolito
B.C. watching U.K.’s COVID struggles but don’t think province will see similar pitfalls

Studies show that one dose of vaccine is only 33 per cent effective in preventing B.1.617.2 spread

RCMP Const. Shelby Patton is shown in this undated handout photo. RCMP say that Patton was hit by an allegedly stolen truck that he had pulled over on Saturday morning in Wolseley, east of Regina. THE CANADIAN PRESS/HO, RCMP
Pair charged in Saskatchewan Mountie’s death make first court appearance

Const. Shelby Patton was hit by an allegedly stolen truck that he had pulled over Saturday morning

Most Read